600 – Five Iroquois nations form the powerful Confederacy of the Longhouse.
1000 – Leif Ericsson’s first voyage to Vinland. A Norse colony is established on Vinland, but lasts only a couple of years. Native people of southern Ontario begin to plant and harvest corn. The Thule people – ancestors of the Inuit – migrate east across Artic Canada.
1492 – Columbus sails to America
1497 – John Cabot claims New World territory (either Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island) for England. John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) of Genoa makes two voyages for England to the fishing grounds of Newfoundland.
1498 – Cabot makes his second voyage across the Atlantic to the Maritimes but is lost at sea.
1534 – Jacques Cartier explores the coast of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick. He lands on the Gaspe Peninsula and claims the land for France.
1535 – Jacques Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence to the Native settlements of Stadacona and Hochelaga. He gives Canada its name (from Indian word kanata, meaning village).
1576 – Martin Frobisher journeys as far as Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, on the first of three voyages in search of the Northwest Passage.
1585 – Davis is dispatched to find the Northwest passage to Asia and Davis Strait is named after him.
1600 – King Henry IV of France awards a Fur trading Monopoly to a group of French merchants.
1604 – Pierre Du Gua de Monts and Samuel Champlain establish a colony in Nova Scotia. Marc Lescarbot starts the first library and first French school of Native people, and in 1606 produces the first play staged in Canada. After Lescarbot returns to France, he writes the first history of Canada.
1605 – Port Royal is established in Nova Scotia by the French under Samuel de Champlain.
1608 – Samuel de Champlain founds a permanent French colony at Quebec. July 3 Quebec City is founded.
1609 – Champlain travels with the Algonquins to Lake Champlain where they attack the Iroquois and the French use firearms against the Iroquois. – Lippershey invents spectacles.
1610 – Etienne Brule goes to live among the Huron and eventually becomes the first European to see Lakes Ontario, Huron and Superior. Henry Hudson explores Hudson Bay and is set adrift by a mutinous crew and dies.
1613 – Foundation of St. John’s Newfoundland.
1615 – The first Roman Catholic missionaries try to convert Native people to Christianity. Champlain discovers the Great Lakes.
1625 – Jesuits arrive in Quebec to begin missionary work among the Indians.
1627 – The Company of One Hundred Associates is founded, by Cardinal Richelieu, to establish a French Empire in North America – War breaks out between England and France.
1639 – The Huron Nation is reduced by half from European disease (smallpox epidemic, 1639).
1649 – The Jesuit Father Jean de Brebeuf is martyred by the Iroquois at St-Ignace. War between the Huron and Iroquois confederacies leads to the destruction of the Huron nation. The Iroquois begin raids on New France.
1663 – King Louis XIV decides to rebuild New France. He sends a governor and troops to protect the colony, and intendant (Jean Talon) to administer it, and settlers to increase its population.
1666 – Carignan-Salieres Regiment leaves Quebec on raids into Iroquois territory that will end Iroquois harassment of New France for 23 years.
1668 – English Ketch Nonsuch reaches Rupert River in James Bay, where crew will build first Hudson’s Bay Company post.
1670 – the “Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay” (the Hudson’s Bay Company, or HBC) was created under a royal charter signed by Charles II.
1701 – Treaty of peace with the Iroquois Confederacy is signed.
1713 – Having begun in Europe in1701, The War of the Spanish Succession spreads to North America (Queen Anne’s War) in Acadia and New England. The Treaty of Utrecht cedes Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and mainland Nova Scotia to England.
1731 – The La Vérendrye family organize expeditions beyond Lake Winnipeg and direct fur trade toward the east. They are the first recorded Europeans to sight the Canadian Rockies from the East.
1740 – The Mandan Indians west of the Great Lakes begin to trade in horses descended from those brought to Texas by the Spanish. Itinerant Assiniboine Indians bring them from Mandan settlements to their own territories southwest of Lake Winnipeg.
1750 – The Ojibwa begin to emerge as a distinct tribal amalgamation of smaller independent bands. German immigrants begin to arrive in numbers at Halifax.
1754 – Beginning of the French and Indian War in America, though not officially declared for another two years.
1756 – The Seven Years War between Great Britain and France begins, fought partly in their North America colonies.
1759 – At the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Quebec falls to the British. Both commander, Wolfe and Montcalm, are killed. The next year both Montreal and New France surrender to the British. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris seals the fall of New France.
1763 – New France becomes a British colony called Quebec. Alliance of Native nations under Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa, makes war on the British, seizing many forts and trading posts.
1770 – Samuel Hearne, guided by Chipewyan leader Matonabbee, explores in a two-years voyage the Coppermine and Slave rivers and Great Slave Lake. He is the first white man to reach the Artic Ocean overland.
1775 – American invaders under General Montgomery assault Quebec. The city is under siege until spring, when British reinforcements drive the Americans away.
1776 – The fur traders of Montreal band together in the North West Company to compete with the traders of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
1783 – The border between Canada and the U.S. is accepted from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake of the Woods.
1784 – Province of New Brunswick formed.
Late 1700’s – Dene from the Valley of the Deh Cho attended the negotiations which led to a peace treaty with the Cree in the territory which is now called the Peace Country of Alberta.
1713 –It is not known when Great Britian first assumed control over the North Western Territory, but after France accepted British sovereignty over the Hudson Bay coast by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Great Britain was the only European power with practical access to that part of the continent.
1763 – On February 10th, the Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain’s victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years’ War. The signing of the treaty formally ended the Seven Years’ War, known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre, and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe. Britain gained much of France’s possessions in North America, and in addition, Britain agreed to protect Roman Catholicism in the New World.
1775 – The British Empire included 20 territories in the Western Hemisphere north of New Spain. These were Newfoundland, Rupert’s Land, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, the Thirteen Colonies (which fought Britain to gain independence and became the sovereign nation of the United States of America in 1783), East and West Florida, and the Province of Quebec.
1784 – Nova Scotia was split into modern-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
1791 – Quebec was split into the primarily French-speaking Lower Canada and the primarily English-speaking Upper Canada.
1803 – FORT SIMPSON: The Northwest Company established a trading post called Fort of the Forks
1804 – FORT SIMPSON: Fort of the Forks was built
1811 – FORT SIMPSON: Fort of the Forks was abandoned
1818 – On October 20th, the Treaty of 1818, was signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, and it established the 49th parallel as the border between British North America and the United States of America.
1818 – FORT SIMPSON: the earliest records of the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) for Fort Simpson
1821 – In December, the HBC monopoly was extended from the original Rupert’s Land area to the Pacific coast. Up to this time, what is now the Northwest Territories was part of British North America.
1821 – FORT SIMPSON: The North West Trading Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company merged in 1821 and moved back to Fort Simpson, renaming it in honour of the Company’s governor, Sir George Simpson.
1822 – FORT SIMPSON: Hudson’s Bay Company established their trading post on Simpson Island
1828 – FORT SIMPSON: The Hudson’s Bay Company 40-foot York boats start to replace canoes on the river.
August, 1858 – FORT SIMPSON: Establishment of Anglican Mission in Fort Simpson, and soon after deeded a narrow strip of land from the river right across the island, abutting the Hudson’s Bay Company’s land.
1841 – The Canadas were united into the Province of Canada.
1858 – FORT SIMPSON: Roman Catholic missionaries first arrived here on August 16, 1858.
1861 – FORT SIMPSON: the first St. David’s Church and a large Mission House were built. It was demolished in 1930.
1865 – FORT SIMPSON: An epidemic of scarlet fever caused the death of 50 persons during the summer of 1865 in and around Fort Simpson.
1867 – Arrival of four Grey Nuns at Providence.
1867 – On 1 July 1867, an Act of the British Parliament called the British North America Act formed the Dominion of Canada from the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The former Province of Canada was split back into its pre-1841 parts, with Canada East (Lower Canada) renamed Quebec, and Canada West (Upper Canada) renamed Ontario. These were the original four provinces of Canada.
1868 – The Rupert’s Land Act 1868 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as it then was), authorizing the transfer of Rupert’s Land from the control of the Hudson’s Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada.
1858 – FORT SIMPSON: Bernard Rogan ROSS (1827-1874) became the Chief Trader in charge of the Mackenzie District and was stationed in Fort Simpson. He held this post until 1862.
1869 – Rupert’s Land was annexed to Canada as the Northwest Territories (NWT) as part of the Rupert’s Land Act of 1868.
1870 a part of the NWT, and Manitoba became a province of Canada.
1871 – The west-coast British colony north of the 49th parallel, British Columbia, joined Confederation.
1873 – Prince Edward Island joined Canada.
1874 – FORT SIMPSON: Fort Simpson’s first school dates back to 1874 and was built by the Anglican Mission. It was run by Mrs. Bompas, the wife of the Anglican Bishop. It was demolished in 1930.
1888 – FORT SIMPSON: The first docking of a new steamer named “Wrigley”, built and owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company, lands in Fort Simpson. Previously, 40-foot York boats brought passengers and freight up and down the Mackenzie River. This was the first landing of a motorized boat in Fort Simpson. Resident population on Simpson Island is 12 persons. It was common during the summer months that over 300 people from outlying communities, various camps, Anglican and Catholic missionaries and HBC staff converged on the island to trade and meet.
1894- FORT SIMPSON: A Roman Catholic priest, Father Brochu, established a permanent residence in Fort Simpson.
1898 – FORT SIMPSON: The North West Mounted Police patrol out of Fort Saskatchewan arrived in Fort Simpson in 1898 having taken 80 days to cover the 3,475 km (2172 miles). Its purpose was to check on the illegal traffic of liquor and on the use of poisonous baits.
1899 – Many Dene gathered near the mouth of Redknife River. Their leaders went out onto Great Slave Lake to witness the negotiations of Treaty 8 at Fort Resolution. They returned and told their people that they decided to not take treaty at that time.
1905 – Large parts of the Northwest Territories became the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta.
1907 – The sole remaining British North American colony, Newfoundland, was granted Dominion status, but did not officially become a province until 1949.
1910 –FORT SIMPSON: The Hudson’s Bay Company closed their post.
1911 – FORT SIMPSON: the Roman Catholic Parish Hall was built in 1911 within the Hudson’s Bay Company compound (near the Rock Monument).
1913 – FORT SIMPSON: a detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was established in Fort Simpson.
1916 – FORT SIMPSON: The federal government of Canada surveyed lands in Dene communities along the Dehcho and allocated them as lands reserved for Indian Use. But, there was no interest expressed by the Crown to sign treaty with the Dene in the valley until the year after oil was discovered at Norman Wells by the old man Blondin.
1917 –FORT SIMPSON: The Roman Catholic mission built St. Margaret’s hall in 1917.
1916 – FORT SIMPSON: St. Margaret’s hospital was built in 1916 on a site across 100th Street where Deh Cho Hall used to stand (now an empty lot).
1917 – FORT SIMPSON: A school, St. Margaret’s Hall, was built in 1917 and served until 1947 when a Federal Day School was built.
1919 – FORT SIMPSON: Faille’s cabin was built from locally milled wood as the kitchen wing of the Indian Agent’s House. Albert Faille worked for the Indian Agent, Flynn Harris, and took up residence in the wing during the 1940s. The Fort Simpson Historical Society worked with the Village of Fort Simpson to designate this structure as an official Village of Fort Simpson Municipal Historic Site through a Village of Fort Simpson Heritage By-Law on May 3, 2004. It is registered with the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
1920 – FORT SIMPSON: The Old Barn is a two-story squared-log structure, built circa 1920. The gambrel roof was rebuilt in 1936. Only the building is designated. The Fort Simpson Historical Society worked with the Village of Fort Simpson to designate this structure as an official Village of Fort Simpson Municipal Historic Site through a Village of Fort Simpson Heritage By-Law on May 3, 2004. It is registered with the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
1921 – FORT SIMPSON: the Crown sent a Treaty Party into Denendeh (Land of the People) to make Treaty 11 with a view to extinguishment of the aboriginal title to the territory and lands. The Crown’s written version of the treaty states that the Dene ceded all their rights, lands and interests. There was and still exists much controversy over this. The Dene’s oral version, substantiated by affidavits from Dene signatories to the treaty and non-native witnesses to the meeting in all the Dene communities in the valley, clearly states that the treaty was for friendship and peace.
1921 – FORT SIMPSON: the Roman Catholic Parish Hall was relocated in 1921 to near the present day hospital. It took six weeks, and ox-powered capstan and a lot of hard work to do the job.
1923 – FORT SIMPSON: The Roman Catholic Sacred Heart Church was built.
1925 – FORT SIMPSON: Andy Whittington and his brother constructed a hotel from logs and local lumber around 1925. It had a dance hall and a restaurant. He left Fort Simpson in 1957.
1928 – FORT SIMPSON: a flu epidemic hits Fort Simpson, and the old Anglican cemetery, located behind the Post Office and Swimming Pool, has many unmarked graves of local victims of this epidemic. The old Roman Catholic cemetery, located behind the school, close to the steam plant also has an unmarked grave where lie the remains of the many local victims of the 1928 flu epidemic.
1929 – FORT SIMPSON: Lafferty House is a one-and-a-half storey squared-log dwelling built circa 1929. It is located at the north end of the village of Fort Simpson, close to the waterfront. The Fort Simpson Historical Society worked with the Village of Fort Simpson to designate this structure as an official Village of Fort Simpson Municipal Historic Site through a Village of Fort Simpson Heritage By-Law on May 3, 2004. It is registered with the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
1930 – FORT SIMPSON: Mr. Bud Alley, a trader from Lebanon, and his wife built a log residence on 101 Avenue. Mr. Alley rented small store from the Roman Catholic Mission and he also operated two other stores and some barges on the Mackenzie River.
1930 – FORT SIMPSON: the Anglican Mission House, Anglican School and St. David’s Church were demolished.
1930 – FORT SIMPSON: A new St David’s Church was dedicated on the same Anglican site in 1930 and remained until 1967, when it was moved inland to its present location on 100th Street. Interestingly, the pulpit and pews from the original 1861 church have survived and are still used in the new church.
1930- FORT SIMPSON: St. Margaret’s hospital was burned to the ground in 1930.
1931- FORT SIMPSON: St. Margaret’s hospital (which burnt down in 1930) was rebuilt.
1931 – On December 11th, the Statute of Westminster was passed establishing the legislative independence of the Dominion of Canada making Canada a sovereign nation, and set the basis for the continuing relationship between the Commonwealth realms and the British crown.
1936 – FORT SIMPSON: The McPherson House, a one-and-a-half storey squared-log dwelling that overlooks the Papal Flats in Fort Simpson, is built. The Fort Simpson Historical Society worked with the Village of Fort Simpson to designate this structure as an official Village of Fort Simpson Municipal Historic Site through a Village of Fort Simpson Heritage By-Law on May 3, 2004. It is registered with the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
1938 – FORT SIMPSON: A new combined Mission House and School was built on the original Anglican site in 1938 using logs from the original buildings.
1947 –FORT SIMPSON: the Anglican school was closed, and became a residence until July 1990 when it was destroyed by fire.
1947 – FORT SIMPSON: The Catholic School, St. Margaret’s Hall was closed when a Federal Day School was built. The Parish Hall was moved to the area in 1921 and in 1923 Sacred Heart Church was built.
1949 – The island of Newfoundland, and its associated mainland territory of Labrador, joined Canada as the tenth province.
1958 – FORT SIMPSON: There is a stone grotto on the lawn in front of the hospital erected in 1958 to mark 100 years of Roman Catholic missionary activity in the community.
1959-60 – FORT SIMPSON: The Thomas Simpson School was built close to the newly laid 100th Street and was designed to serve local children, as well as those from outlying communities. It was named for Thomas Simpson, a cousin of the Hudson’s Bay Company Governor Sir George Simpson who, between 1836 and 1839 surveyed the Arctic coast on behalf of the Company, in search of the North West Passage.
1963 – FORT SIMPSON: Severe spring flooding immerses the flats in water, homes destroyed and those that survived were moved to higher ground on the island
1967 –FORT SIMPSON: The St David’s Church, built 1930 was moved inland to its present location on 100th Street. Interestingly, the pulpit and pews from the original 1861 church have survived and are still used in the church.
1969 – FORT SIMPSON: Johnnie McPherson, well-known Hudson’s Bay Company pensioner and lifelong retainer dies. He grew up in the service of the Company and for many years he was Factor and Manager of such fur posts as Fort Liard, Fort Wrigley and Fort Simpson.
1972 –FORT SIMPSON: Bompas Hall closed as a hostel in 1972 and was redesigned to serve as an elementary school.
1972 – FORT SIMPSON: St. Margaret’s Hospital closed when the Federal Government built today’s hospital.
1973 – FORT SIMPSON: Albert Faille died during the night of December 31, 1973 in his outhouse.
1974 –FORT SIMPSON: the Federal Government had assumed responsibility for education in the community and a Federal Day School was built near the river bank roughly between the two mission. Both mission schools closed at this time.
1982 – On April 17th, Elizabeth II signed The Constitution Act, 1982 as part of the Constitution of Canada. The British North America Act of 1867 was renamed the Constitution Act of 1867, and several amendments were made, like the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and recognizes and affirms aboriginal and treaty rights with the Indians, Inuit and Metis people in Canada. Quebec had never formally approved of the Constitution Act, 1982.
1987 – The Meech Lake Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the 10 provincial premiers. It was intended to persuade the government of Quebec to endorse the 1982 constitutional amendment and increase support in Quebec for remaining within Canada. Its rejection had the effect of energizing support for Quebec sovereignty.
1984 – FORT SIMPSON: Pope John Paul II was scheduled to visit Fort Simpson, but fog prevented his plane from landing and the visit had to be postponed
1987 – FORT SIMPSON: Pope John Paul II visits Fort Simpson
1987 – FORT SIMPSON: Lapointe Hall, a hostel for all out-of-town students is closed. At that point, the Hall became occupied by the Board of Education, the Day Care, the Community Library and some government agencies.
?? – FORT SIMPSON: Monument of the Four Directions erected at Ehdaa National Historic Site (The Flats)
July, 1990 – FORT SIMPSON: the old Anglican school, which was now a residence was destroyed by fire.
1992 – The Charlottetown Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. It was intended to persuade the government of Quebec to endorse the 1982 constitutional amendment and increase support in Quebec for remaining within Canada. It was submitted to a public referendum on October 26 of that year, and was defeated.
1992 – FORT SIMPSON: On July 1st, the Rock Monument (Ehtiidli) was erected at the Ehdaa National Historic Site (The Flats)
2000 – FORT SIMPSON: the Fort Simpson Heritage Park was the site of an exploratory archaeological dig.
2002 – FORT SIMPSON: a second archaeological dig at Fort Simpson Heritage Park
2004 – FORT SIMPSON: a third archaeological dig at Fort Simpson Heritage Park